antonio bertoniIt took more than a hundred years since then, as a scientist and naturalist, famous botanist Italian-Swiss origin Antonio Bertone during an expedition to Paraguay opened for themselves and for the world sweet plant, which later became known as Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni.

Before the Europeans found sweet grass, Stevia has been used for thousands of years with the Indians in present-day Paraguay and Brazil as a medicinal plant. Today, scientists estimate that there are over 80 species of Stevia., Which grow wild in North America. There are about two hundred additional types of Stevia, which grows exclusively in South America. But one only Stevia Rebaudiana two other now extinct species have proved to be the natural sweetness that is their hallmark.

1837 - The first report on the use of stevia in food Guarani Indians described Dr. Moises Bertoni. As director of the Agronomy College in the capital, Asuncion, Paraguay, Bertoni interested in stories of extraordinary plants, sweet taste. After receiving a gift from a priest live specimen Stevia Bertoni went to work. It turned out that this is a new member of the genus Stevia; discoverer named it in honor of his friend, the chemist Dr. Ovid Rebaudi, helps to make the extract, so that in the end it turned Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.

1900 - A friend of Antonio Bertone, Dr. Ovid Rebaudi made the first chemical analysis of the leaves of stevia, and opened them sweet substance - glycoside.

1901 - The British consul in Asunsene K. Gozling Stevia wrote: "This plant, which is known to the Indians (Guarani) is already more than a hundred years. The secret of this herb kept them strictly. Stevia grows in the highlands of Amambay, near the source of the river ... Mandy leaves her a little, and even a miniature flower. The Indians called it «Kaa'-echo," which means "sweet grass". Due to its sweetness quite a few large leaves to sweeten a cup of tea, which also give a pleasant aroma "

1901 - After the study Stevia Burton wrote that a pair of herb leaf is enough to sweeten a cup of tea. And besides, the plant does not contain any toxic substances.

1908 - began to cultivate Stevia, this year has been received the first harvest - 1 ton of dry leaves.

1918 Bertoni described the stevia, and concluded: "Stevia is not only toxic, but on the other hand is very useful for health, as proven by the experience of the doctor Rebaudi."

1920 - begins Stevia is grown on large plantations in Brazil and Paraguay.

1921 - George S. Brady introduced stevia USDA (American Board of Trade) as "as a new opportunity to produce a sweetener with large business opportunities." Brady drew attention to its non-toxicity. He also claims that it is "ideal and safe sugar substitute for diabetics."

1931 - Two French chemist named Brided (Briedel) and Lavelle (Lavieille) unraveled the mystery of the research work with the extract of stevia leaves Antonio Bertoni. Results of the study was the selection of pure white crystalline substance, which was called "stevioside". Its content comes from 4 to 20% by dry weight of plants, and other analogues rebaudioside halved.

1932 French scientist Lavelle conclude that the sweetness of stevioside is 300 times the sweetness of sugar, and this substance has no apparent side and toxic effects in different groups of experimental animals.

1934 - Soviet scientist Nikolai Vavilov brought back from the expedition Paraguayan stevia seeds. In his letter to the Soviet government scientist pointed to the unique medicinal and flavoring properties of this plant, capable of restoring the disturbed metabolic processes in the body, increase energy levels, to delay the aging process, protect the body from the harmful effects of the environment, to harmonize all the systems of the body, while keeping intensely sweet taste. This Vavilov pointed out the possibility of using stevia in food industry as a sweetener. However, due to the repression of the time, the program "stevia" is postponed for many years.

1941 - During World War II, due to the blockade of German submarines bringing up supplies from America, England felt the shortage of sugar. According to this, the country began searching for a natural sugar substitute that could be grown in the British Isles. Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens (Royal Botanical Garden) instructed in Keve Dr. R. Melville studies of stevia as a possible alternative. Dr. Melvill report showed that Stevia rebaudiana may be just the desired product.

1942 - were delivered from Paraguay Stevia seeds in climatically mild regions of England and began experiments on growing. But for unknown reasons the project was canceled.

1952 - A group of researchers of the National Institute of Arthritis and diseases metabolic disorders (National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases), is part of the public health services (Public Health Service) in Bethesda, Maryland, continued research and Laviellya Bridel (Bridel, Lavieille ). Both increased production of stevioside from plants by 7%, and identified the main components of a large and highly complex stevioside molecule. Their studies confirmed further that stevioside is the sweetest of all hitherto discovered natural substances which do not contain nitrogen, and in which there is glucose. Ironically, one researcher wrote in a paper accompanying his comments that "stevioside is not the way to the future of humanity as a sweet" because "It is inconceivable how stevioside can survive economically compared with cheap, harmless (!!!!!!!) and proven sweetener as saccharin." Faced with such a comment, we can cast doubt on the actual harmlessness and "harmlessness" of our modern synthetic sweet food components.

1954 - For the first time in the world started growing stevia in hothouses. Its first began to cultivate Japanese.

1969 - 1971 G. - Scientific Tetsuya Sumida (Tetsuya Sumida) sent by the Japanese government in the agricultural institute in the north of Brazil, where he has to learn the power of sweetness and rich taste of stevia. He sends the seeds of stevia in Japan and becomes responsible for the cultivation of stevia in the regions of Japan. During these years, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan supported the program introdutsirovaniya Stevia from Paraguay. The Japanese called it the "green revolution."

1971 - Chinese researcher Dr. Tei-Fu Chen, (Tei-Fu-Chen) is sent to Paraguay, where he became interested in stevia so much that he asked for the distance resolution for a long stay. Non-chemical methods of plant extract concentrate of ancient manuscripts of the Chinese emperors becomes a method of extraction of stevioside from stevia. So stevioside lost its undesirable color and bitter taste of stevia lictev.

After Dr. Chen began his study in Japan has begun mass use of stevia for sweetening fruits, dried fruits, seafood, meat and fish products, soy sauce, fruit juice, soft drinks, frozen desserts, chewing gum and low-fat non-caloric foods.

70e years. Mnogochislennyetoksikologicheskie research in Japan led to a massive use of stevia and products with its content in the diet. According to this, today the world's most studied and tested foods are stevia and spirulina. None of the research study was not observed toxic effects of stevia on the human body.

1975 - The first modern tests of Stevia were conducted Haruo Akash and his colleague Yoko Yama at the expense of Tama Biochemical Co. These tests were divided into 3 parts: effects on reproductive function, short-term and long-term effects. The first part of the study conducted during pregnancy and the beast, showed no anomalies in development. Short-term effects on the psyche during the test person was not observed. The reports of the long-term impact said: "During the experiments, the consumption of even 5 kg of stevia in the day did not lead to any undesirable effects in animals."

In other words, stevia was very suitable for the food and friendly from different angles, which is not about a cheap saccharin. These results were confirmed by further research in Korea, Japan and the United States.

1977 - Dr. Berthold Hohmann (Berthold Hohmann) writes in the edition of "Review of German food» (»Deutschen Lebensmittel Rundschau»): «According Levaysu no harmful side effects of this substance (stevioside) in animals and humans are not observed."

1979 - The first study of the potential mutagenicity of stevia have been conducted on behalf of the Japanese government in the center of the safety of medicines and food. Studies of the leaves of stevia extract itself stevioside was tested on the 4 kinds of bacteria. The test showed "lack of induction of mutations by direct or metabolic activity."

In 80 years in the Soviet Union returned to the issue of stevia. According to the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers it was adopted and financed a program to adapt to the conditions of stevia moderate climate and has been tasked to develop food for astronauts, special services, submariners, nomenklatura. It has been allocated 4 billion rubles (4 billion 200 million dollars) for development of agricultural technology, the development of production technology derivatives of stevia and its implementation in the food industry. Implementation of the program was conducted under the "classified". The experiments were carried out to adapt all the Soviet republics, but the development of this theme was really only in Ukraine.

1980 Study on the plantations of the USSR stevia grown and harvested sweet leaves tens of tons.

1981 - Japan, with more than 2,000 tons of annual consumption of stevia, ahead of the manufacturer and supplier of artificial sweeteners, global monopoly - Nutrasvit (Nutrasweet (Monsanto). One-third of Japan's consumption of stevia is produced in the country, while the other two-thirds come from China, Taiwan , Korea, Brazil and Malaysia.

Japan has become a second home to Stevia, 90% of the world harvest of dry leaves used in Japanese food. They have to do a very good arguments - the results of studies of Japanese biochemical laboratories and conclusions advanced by scientists and researchers worldwide.

1982 - During a two-week experiment, the research team from Illinois has confirmed that consumption of 2 c mice. stevioside per kg of body weight has no effect on the health and well-being.

1983 - The second study (after 1979) the potential mutagenicity of stevia took place in the center of the Biosafety National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo. A total of 190 have been tested and 52 of synthetic natural supplements to foods, among whom was 85 -% - ing extract from the leaves of stevia. In this test we were investigated 6 bacterial species mutagenicity. At a dosage of 12 mg per ml of extract of stevia was in his mutagenicity equivalent chlorophyll or vanilla extract.

1986 - Officially, Brazil extracts of stevia as a sweetener is permitted.

1987 - Ukrainian scientists gave agricultural techniques of cultivation and planting stevia The material in Uzbekistan.

1990 - At the 9th World Symposium on diabetes and longevity, stevia has been awarded the golden prize, like a plant, to raise the level of bioenergy human capabilities and promote active living to a ripe old age.

1991 - The American Herbal Products Association was formed Committee on stevia.

1991 - Ukraine handed over to the Russian agricultural methods of cultivation and planting stevia.

1995 - FDA authorized the use of stevia as a dietary supplement.

1997 - The Pentagon has completely replaced the stevia sugar in the diet of the US Army

2000 - The Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (Aarhus University Hospital) published a study about the positive effect of stevioside on the cells of the pancreas. (Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin: actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K + -channel activity)

Since 2004 - Experts of the company Cargill (Cargill) and Coca-Cola Company launched a program to assess the security components of the stevia leaf. All the while, consulted with leading international scientists.

2004 - WHO experts approved stevia as a food additive.

2006 - The World Health Organization, based on numerous studies, acknowledged the safety of stevia.

2007 - Stevia has been entered in the Codex alimentarius, which indicates compliance with international safety standards.

2008 - The Coca-Cola Company has published its study, which clearly established the safety of stevia, and the possibility of general use as a sweetener in foods and beverages.

2008 - World leading manufacturer of beverage Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo have launched diet drinks on the basis of stevia extract.

2008 - In France, Coca-Cola Fanta started production on the basis of stevia.

2008 - In Switzerland allowed stevia extracts as a food additive.

2008 - Started the widespread use of stevia in Australia and New Zealand.

2010 - The European Food Safety Authority (EUBPP) the decision was made about the safety of steviol glycosides use as a food additive in the European food industry. Thus, the European Union officially joined the WTO and the Office of the Food and Drug Administration, which earlier decided to begin the use of stevia as an ingredient in the food industry.